## What is #Management #Cybernetics? 22 laws by Barry Clemson (#stwg #systemsthinking)

Just saw this and thought I would reference it so it’s not lost… Barry, please get your book back on the shelves for a decent price! đź™‚

1. **System Holism Principle**: A system has holistic properties possessed by none of its parts. Each of the system parts has properties not possessed by the system as a whole.

2. **Darkness Principle**: no system can be known completely.

3. **Eighty-Twenty Principle**: In any large, complex system, eighty percent of the output will be produced by only twenty percent of the system.

4. **Complementarity Law**: Any two different perspectives (or models) about a system will reveal truths about that system that are neither entirely independent nor entirely compatible.

5. **Hierarchy Principle**: Complex natural phenomena are organized in hierarchies with each level made up of several integral systems.

6. **Godelâ€™s Incompleteness Theorem**: All consistent axiomatic foundations of number theory include undecidable propositions.

7. **Entropy** â€“ **the Second Law of Thermodynamics**: In any closed system the differences in energy can only stay the same or decrease over time; or, in any closed system the amount of order (or organization) can never increase and must eventually decrease.

8. **Redundancy of Information Theorem**: Errors in information transmission can be protected against (to any level of confidence required) by increasing the redundancy in the messages.

9. **Redundancy of Resources Principle**: Maintenance of stability under conditions of disturbance requires redundancy of critical resources.

10. **Redundancy of Potential Command Principle**: In any complex decision network, the potential to act effectively is conferred by an adequate concatenation of information.

11. **Relaxation time Principle**: System stability is possible only if the systemâ€™s relaxation time is shorter than the mean time between disturbances.

12. **Circular Causality Principle One**: Given positive feedback (i.e., a two-part system in which each stimulates any initial change in the other), radically different end states are possible from the same initial conditions.

13. **Circular Causality Principle Two**: Given negative feedback (i.e., a two-part system in which each part tends to offset any change in the other), the equiibrial state is invariant over a wide range of initial conditions.

14. **Feedback dominance theorem**: For high gain amplifiers, the feedback dominates the output over wide variations in input.

15. **Homeostasis Principle**: A system survives only so long as all essential variables are maintained within their physiological limits.

16. **Steady State Principle**: If a system is in a state of equilibrium (a steady state), then all sub-systems must be in equilibrium. If all sub-systems are in a state of equilibrium, then the system must be in equilibrium.

17. **Requisite Variety Law**: The control achievable by a given regulatory sub-system over a given system is limited by 1) the variety of the regulator, and 2) the channel capacity between the regulator and the system.

18. **Conant-Ashby theorem**: Every good regulator of a system must be a model of that system.

19. **Self-Organizing Systems Principle**: Complex systems organize themselves; the characteristic structural and behavioral patterns in a complex system are primarily a result of the interactions among the system parts.

20. **Basins of Stability Principle**: Complex systems have basins of stability separated by thresholds of instability. A system â€śparkedâ€ť on a ridge will â€śroll downhillâ€ť.

21. **Viability Principle**: Viability is a function of the balance maintained along two dimensions: 1) autonomy of sub-systems versus integration of the system as a whole, and 2) stability versus adaptation.

22. **Recursive System Theorem**: If a viable system contains a viable system, then the organizational structure must be recursive; or, in a recursive organizational structure, any viable system contains, and is contained in, a viable system.